The Framers did not face these paradoxes because they never envisioned a Union with fewer than thirteen states of origin. Madison defended the logic of forcing nine states to ratify, explaining the consequences of ratifying only twelve states. Federalist No. 40 states that the nine states for ratification “started, out of irresistible conviction, from the absurdity of the absurdity of the perversity or corruption of a thirteenth [Rhode Island].” Neither Madison nor any other federalist defended the merits of a nine-state Union, which the Federalist Papers claimed would lead to a frantic catastrophe. The convention did not begin with national powers, it began with the powers already conferred on the Congress of the Confederation with the control of the army, international relations and trade. [r] The Constitution has added ten more. Five were weak in power-sharing, including business and manufacturing protection. [s] An important new power authorized Congress to protect states from “domestic violence” from civil unrest and unrest, but it was conditioned by a request from the state.  The Articles of Confederation were submitted to the States for ratification at the end of November 1777. The first state to be ratified was Virginia on December 16, 1777; Twelve states had ratified the articles by February 1779, 14 months after the trial.  The only holdout, Maryland, refused to go until the states, particularly Virginia, signaled that they were willing to cede their rights to the Union west of the Ohio River.  It would take two years for the Maryland General Assembly to be convinced that individual states will do so and vote in favor of ratification. Meanwhile, Congress viewed the articles as its de facto governing framework.
Maryland finally ratified the articles on February 2, 1781. On March 1, Congress was informed of Maryland`s consignment and officially declared the articles of the Confederacy law of the land.    During the debates, each state was allowed to vote a single vote in accordance with the majority opinion of the state delegates. . . .